Several screening tests can be used to find polyps or colorectal cancer.
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends colorectal cancer screening for men and women aged 50–75 using high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy. (The decision to be screened after age 75 should be made on an individual basis. If you are older than 75, ask your doctor if you should be screened.)
Talk to your doctor [PDF-178KB]Talk to your doctor about which of the following tests are right for you.
The 25 states and four tribes in CDC's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) provide colorectal cancer screening services to low-income men and women aged 50–64 years who are underinsured or uninsured for screening, when no other insurance is available.
There are two types of FOBT. One uses the chemical guaiac to detect blood. The other, a fecal immunochemical test (FIT), uses antibodies to detect blood in the stool. You receive a test kit from your health care provider. At home, you use a stick or brush to obtain a small amount of stool. You return the test kit to the doctor or a lab, where the stool samples are checked for the presence of blood.
How often: Once a year.
For this test, the doctor puts a short, thin, flexible, lighted tube into your rectum. The doctor checks for polyps or cancer inside the rectum and lower third of the colon.
How often: Every 5 years with FOBT every 3 years.
This is similar to flexible sigmoidoscopy, except the doctor uses a longer, thin, flexible, lighted tube to check for polyps or cancer inside the rectum and the entire colon. During the test, the doctor can find and remove most polyps and some cancers. Colonoscopy also is used as a follow-up test if anything unusual is found during one of the other screening tests.
How often: Every 10 years.
Although these tests are not recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, they are used in some settings and other groups may recommend them. Many insurance plans don't cover these tests, and if anything unusual is found during the test, you likely will need a follow-up colonoscopy.
You receive an enema with a liquid called barium, followed by an air enema. The barium and air create an outline around your colon, allowing the doctor to see the outline of your colon on an X-ray.
Uses X-rays and computers to produce images of the entire colon which are displayed on a computer screen.
You collect an entire bowel movement and send it to a lab to be checked for cancer cells.